return to: Eul 1 Eul 4 eud 1 eul 1 ent 1 ent 5 ent 10 ent 13 ent 16 ent 21 ent 26

Chrysonotomyia Ashmead, 1904 comparative info return to: prev home
Mandibular formula 3:3. Clypeus set off by distinct sutures, but small, not much broader than long. Transverse frontal groove straight, not v-shaped; scrobal grooves very close together throughtout their length, reaching transverse groove separately, extending ventrally below toruli; interscrobal ridge reaching transverse groove. Flagellum with L-shaped (type 2) peg sensilla; all postanellar flagellomeres narrow and longer than broad. Mesoscutal midlobe with 1 pair of setae in most Nearctic species (the posterior pair). Postmarginal vein subequal or shorter than stigmal vein; 2 setal tracks radiating from stigma; radial cell bare; forewing with vague fuscate spot near stigma, without transverse fuscate bands. Propodeum smooth, without median carina. Petiole small and unsculpted. Male genitalia with only 1 volsellar seta. Compare with: Ametallon, Omphale, Closterocerus, Achrysocharoides.

chrysonotomyia face.JPG (14483 bytes)chrysonotomyia mesosoma.JPG (19567 bytes)
1a-b: Chrysonotomyia face (left), and mesosoma (right)

chrysonotomyia wing.JPG (11807 bytes)
2a: Chrysonotomyia forewing [most discal setae not shown]

Biology:   Parasitoids of Cecidomyiids.

Comments: 23 described species. A controversial genus formerly encompassing most Nearctic species now placed in Closterocerus. Placement of many of these species, particularly to the subgenus Closterocerus (Achrysocharis), was based upon the number of setal tracks radiating from the stigmal apex (Hansson 1994a, 1994b), and reassessment based on a stronger suite of characters may result in further rearrangement. Burks et al. (2011) confirmed generic distinction of Chrysonotomyia from other examined species of Entedoninae. Hansson (2004) indicated that the presence of only a single volsellar seta is a synapomorphy for this genus, helping distinguish it from all similar genera.

Comparative information:

Ametallon: Head, body, and legs pale yellow to whitish. Gt1 in females with lateral indented, distinctly sculpted areas. Upper frons (above transverse frontal groove) smooth and shiny. Very similar to Chrysonotomyia, likely rendering it paraphyletic. Although the characters for separating them may appear to be unsatisfactory, they are all that I can offer.

Omphale: Transverse frontal groove weakly to strongly v-shaped. Clypeus much broader than long or protruding from face in many species. Face in most species with a transverse ridge between the toruli and clypeus. Mesoscutal midlobe with 2 pairs of setae in most species.

Closterocerus: Forewing with at most 1 setal track radiating from stigmal apex. Transverse frontal groove v-shaped in the subgenus Closterocerus. Mesoscutal midlobe with 2 or more pairs of setae in most species. Most species of the subgenus Achrysocharis are distinguished only by the number of setal tracks radiating from the stigma.

Achrysocharoides: Eyes densely setose. Mesoscutal midlobe with 2 pairs of setae. Clypeus not set off by sutures. Transverse frontal groove often very far below the median ocellus (not often near it as in Chrysonotomyia). Forewing without setal tracks radiating from stigma. Toruli often very broadly separated, scrobal depressions meeting before reaching transverse groove or ending far apart at transverse groove. Flagellar formula usually 3,3,2, sometimes 3,4,1 in males. Mesoscutum and especially scutellum often with distinct groups of pits or longitudinal foveae.

return to top


Burks, R.A., Heraty, J.M., Gebiola, M. & Hansson, C. 2011. Combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), with focus on the subfamily Entedoninae. Cladistics 27: 581-605.

Gumovsky, A.V. 2001. The status of some genera allied to Chrysonotomyia and Closterocerus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae), with description of a new species from Dominican Amber. Phegea 29(4): 125-141.

Hansson, C. 1990. A taxonomic study on the Palearctic species of Chrysonotomyia Ashmead and Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Entomologica Scandinavica. 20: 29-52.

Hansson, C. 1994a. Re-evaluation of the genus Closterocerus Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a revision of the Nearctic species. Entomologica Scandinavica. 25: 1-25.

Hansson, C. 1994b. The classification of Chrysonotomyia Ashmead and Teleopterus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a review of species in the Nearctic region. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 96: 665-673.

Hansson, C. 2004. Eulophidae of Costa Rica, 2. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 75. 536 pp.

Image credits: 1a-b, 2a: Hansson (1994b).