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ent 16 ent
21 ent 26
Ashmead, 1904 comparative info return to: prev home
Mandibular formula 3:3. Clypeus set off by distinct sutures, but
small, not much broader than long. Transverse frontal groove straight,
not v-shaped; scrobal grooves very close together throughtout their length, reaching
transverse groove separately, extending ventrally below toruli; interscrobal ridge
reaching transverse groove. Flagellum with L-shaped (type 2) peg sensilla; all postanellar
flagellomeres narrow and longer than broad. Mesoscutal midlobe with 1 pair of
setae in most Nearctic species (the posterior pair). Postmarginal vein subequal or shorter than stigmal
vein; 2 setal tracks radiating from stigma; radial cell bare; forewing
with vague fuscate spot near stigma, without transverse fuscate bands. Propodeum smooth,
without median carina. Petiole small and unsculpted. Male genitalia with only 1 volsellar seta. Compare with: Ametallon,
Omphale, Closterocerus, Achrysocharoides.
1a-b: Chrysonotomyia face (left), and mesosoma (right)
2a: Chrysonotomyia forewing [most discal setae not shown]
Parasitoids of Cecidomyiids.
described species. A controversial genus formerly encompassing most Nearctic species now
placed in Closterocerus. Placement of many of these species, particularly to the
subgenus Closterocerus (Achrysocharis), was based upon the number of
setal tracks radiating from the stigmal apex (Hansson 1994a, 1994b), and reassessment
based on a stronger suite of characters may result in further rearrangement. Burks et al. (2011) confirmed generic distinction of Chrysonotomyia from other examined species of Entedoninae. Hansson (2004) indicated that the presence of only a single volsellar seta is a synapomorphy for this genus, helping distinguish it from all similar genera.
Ametallon: Head, body, and legs pale yellow
to whitish. Gt1 in females with lateral indented, distinctly
sculpted areas. Upper frons (above transverse frontal groove) smooth and shiny.
Very similar to Chrysonotomyia, likely rendering it paraphyletic. Although the
characters for separating them may appear to be unsatisfactory, they are all that I can
Omphale: Transverse frontal groove weakly to
strongly v-shaped. Clypeus much broader than long or protruding from face in many species.
Face in most species with a transverse ridge between the toruli and clypeus. Mesoscutal
midlobe with 2 pairs of setae in most species.
Closterocerus: Forewing with at most 1 setal
track radiating from stigmal apex. Transverse frontal groove v-shaped in the subgenus Closterocerus.
Mesoscutal midlobe with 2 or more pairs of setae in most species. Most species of the
subgenus Achrysocharis are distinguished only by the number of setal tracks
radiating from the stigma.
Achrysocharoides: Eyes densely
setose. Mesoscutal midlobe with 2 pairs of setae. Clypeus not
set off by sutures. Transverse frontal groove often very far below the median ocellus (not
often near it as in Chrysonotomyia). Forewing without setal tracks radiating from
stigma. Toruli often very broadly separated, scrobal depressions meeting before reaching
transverse groove or ending far apart at transverse groove. Flagellar formula usually
3,3,2, sometimes 3,4,1 in males. Mesoscutum and especially scutellum often with
distinct groups of pits or longitudinal foveae.
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Burks, R.A., Heraty, J.M., Gebiola, M. & Hansson, C. 2011. Combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), with focus on the subfamily Entedoninae. Cladistics 27: 581-605.
Gumovsky, A.V. 2001. The status of some genera allied to Chrysonotomyia
and Closterocerus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae), with description of a new
species from Dominican Amber. Phegea 29(4): 125-141.
Hansson, C. 1990. A taxonomic study on the Palearctic species of Chrysonotomyia
Ashmead and Neochrysocharis Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Entomologica
Scandinavica. 20: 29-52.
Hansson, C. 1994a. Re-evaluation of the genus Closterocerus
Westwood (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a revision of the Nearctic species. Entomologica
Scandinavica. 25: 1-25.
Hansson, C. 1994b. The classification of Chrysonotomyia Ashmead
and Teleopterus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a review of species in
the Nearctic region. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 96:
Hansson, C. 2004. Eulophidae of Costa Rica, 2. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 75. 536 pp.
Image credits: 1a-b, 2a: Hansson (1994b).