Glossary

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This key is intended for all users below specialist level, but it is most accessible to intermediate users who are aware of basic terminology. I have endeavored to use as little obscure descriptive terminology as possible, as such terms are almost always ambiguous and misleading. Specialized terms, however, are unavoidable. Given the high quality of the glossary provided by Gibson et al. (1998), I do not see the need to replicate their effort for the large number of terms included therein. The full citation for their glossary is:

Gibson, G.A.P., Read, J.D. and Fairchild, R. 1998.
Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea):  illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms. URL -  http://res2.agr.gc.ca/ecorc/chalcid/intro_e.htm. June 15, 1998.

Specialists of each group in Chalcidoidea use their own specialized terms. This key is no different in that respect, and I have adopted certain terms not given as such in that glossary. Below is a glossary of terms and usage not included in the glossary by Gibson et al. (1988).

Areolate: In surface sculpture, forming a relatively large, diamond-shaped or pentagonal structure, always defined by carinae.

Denticle: Literally, "tiny tooth." Used in this key to refer to small apical divisions that can only ambiguously be referred to as "teeth" because they are not socketed, such as the apical "teeth" of mandibles.

Flagellar formula: Numerical series listing the number of anelli, funicular segments, and claval segments in order. Example: a flagellar formula of 1,4,3 means that there is 1 anellus, 4 funicular segments, and 3 claval segments.

Fuscate: Darkly pigmented, when referring to area of wing membrane. Also called fumate, infumate, infuscate, and probably by some other names by different authors. The choice between these terms seems arbitrary to me. Antonym = hyaline.

Interscrobal process/ridge: Area between the scrobal grooves/depressions (see figure).

chrysocharis_chlorus_face.JPG (14352 bytes)
Interscrobal ridge = IR

Mandibular formula: Numerical series listing the number of mandibular denticles for the left and right mandibles in order. Example: a mandibular formula of 3:4 means that the left mandible has 3 denticles, and the right has 4 denticles.

Median panels (of propodeum): Area between plica and median carina. If plicae and median carina are absent, then it is the area between the imaginary place where a plica should be and the median axis.

Nodose/nodulose: In antennal structure, segments separated by visible narrow stems. Essentially the same as pedunculate or pedicellate.

Paraspiracular carina: Propodeal carinae arising lateral to the spiracles and proceeding laterally and posteriorly. This term was until recently treated as synonymous with plicae, but in the Entedoninae there are distinct paraspiracular carinae that extend outside the propodeal spiracles to delimit the paraspiracular depression. This is distinct from plicae, which arise medial to the spiracles.

Postanellar flagellomeres: All flagellomeres, ie: funicular and claval segments, arising apical to the anelli.

Pronotal collar: see pronotal carina in Gibson et al. (1988).

Punctate: In surface sculpture, having many tiny pits.

Reticulate: In surface sculpture, a pattern formed by closely-approximated pits defined by tiny carinae, almost invariably referring to densely punctate sculpture in Chalcidoidea.

Ruga: In surface sculpture, a wrinkle-like irregular elevation.

Scrobal groove: = scrobal sulcus in Gibson et al. (1988).

Subapical: Near the apex.

Sublateral groove(s): Different usage from that of Gibson et al. (1988): This groove is not associated with the axillula in Eulophinae, but is a special dorsal scutellar groove, U-shaped if complete (see figure).

sublateral_groove.JPG (23822 bytes)
Sublateral groove = slg

Transverse fronto-facial groove: = frontofacial sulcus in Gibson et al. (1998). Sometimes referred to as "transverse groove" in this key when the reference should be obvious.

Image credits: Interscrobal ridge: Hansson (1990). Sublateral groove: Schauff (1985b).

rogerb@citrus.ucr.edu